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Hot Universe Baryon Surveyor (HUBS)
HUBS is being conceptualized to be a high throughput, high resolution
spectroscopic X-ray mission, to be launched at around the same time
as ESA's Athena mission, with complementary capabilities and scientific
objectives. The scientific driver of HUBS is to quantify the properties
and distribution of circumgalactic and intergalactic media, as well as
the associated key processes such as stellar and AGN feedback, through
high-resolution emission and absorption line spectroscopy. The results
are expected to
provide insights into the mechanisms of heating and metal transport,
which are not understood, and thus aid in our understanding of galaxy
formation and evolution. Because the emission is diffuse and the lines
are expected to be very faint, basic technical requirementis of the
HUBS design are low instrumental background and very large grasp
(which is the product of effective
areas and field of view).
A conceptual design of HUBS is as follows:
It is envisioned that HUBS will be operated both in surveying and deep
pointing modes, with a mission lifetime of at least five years.
- High throughput, fast X-ray optics. It is to provide an overall
effective area of ~1000 square cm and a field of view of
and ~1 square degree, with a moderate spatial resolution of
- High-resolution, high-quantum efficiency Imaging spectrometer. A
60x60 TES array are optimized for soft X-ray energies (0.1 to ~1 keV,
where the most important lines of interest lie)).
The energy resolution of each pixel is 2 eV @ 0.6 keV (where O VII
and O VIII lines are located). A central 9x9 subarray of smaller pixels
may be used to achieve sub-eV energy resolution for absorption line
- Low-Earth, low-inclination orbit for low particle-induced background
and high observing efficiency.