Effect of Fractures on Seismic and Acoustic Wave Propagation
Measured acoustic wavefront
propagated through a sample containing seven parallel fractures.
The signals were filtered to 1 MHz (on the right) and 250 kHz (on the
left). At high frequencies, strong energy confinement is observed.
Background: The objective
is to explore the dispersion relationships and scattering behavior of
waves propagated across and along fractures subjected to varying
conditions, such as normal & shear loads and pore pressures.
This research is designed to establish the uses and limitations of
transmitted, reflected, interface waves and other seismic techniques
for site characterization of waste isolation tunnels, mine stability,
and other underground structures.
Journal Publications & Conference
Waves along a Fracture
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and N.G.W. Cook, 1987,
Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 14, no. 11, pages 1107-1110,
visibility of fractures
L.J. Pyrak-Nolte & N.G.W. Cook, L.R. Myer, Rock Mechanics:
Proceedings of the 28th U.S. Symposium, University of Arizona, Tucson,
29 June - 1 July 1987, eds. I.W. Farmer, J.J.K. Daemen, C.S. Desai,
C.E. Glass & S.P.Neuman, Pubs. A.A. Balkema (Rotterdam), pp. 47-56.
Seismic Waves across Single Natural Fractures
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Myer, L. R. and N.G.W.
Cook, 1990, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 95, no. B6, pages
8617-8638, June 10, 1990).
Seismic Velocities and Amplitudes from Multiple Parallel Fractures
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Myer, L. R. and N.G.W.
Cook, 1990, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 95, no. B7, pages
11,345-11,358; July 10, 1990).
Dependence of Fracture Stiffness
[Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and D. D. Nolte, 1992, Geophysical Research
Letters, vol. 19, no. 3, pages 325-328, February 7, 1992]
Waves along a Fracture: Theory and Experiment
[Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Xu, J. abd G. M. Haley, 1992, in the
proceedings of the 33rd U. S. Symposium on Rock Mechanics, Sata
Fe, New Mexico 3-5 June, 1992, editors: Tillerson & Wawersik,
Balkema, Rotterdam, 999-1007]
of Shear-Wave Amplitude during Frictional Sliding,
W.Y. Chan, C.W. Lovell, G.M. Haley, L.J. Pyrak-Nolte, International
Journal of Rock Mechanics Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts,
Vol.30, No. 7, pp. 779-784, 1993.
of Velocity Dispersion of Elastic Interface Waves Propagating along a
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and D. D. Nolte, 1995,
Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 22, no. 11, pages 1329-1332,June 1,
Propagating along Tensile Fractures in Dolomite
(Roy, S. and L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, 1995,
Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 22, no. 20, pages 2773-2776, October
(Gu, B., Nihei, K., Myer, L. R., and L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, Journal of
Geophysical Research, v101, n.1 , p827, 1995)
interface wave propagation along a fracture,
K.Nihei, B. Gu, L. Myer, L .Pyrak-Nolte, N. Cook, 1995, Proceedings of
the Eighth International Congress on Rock Mechanics, eds. Herausgeber
& T. Fujii, Tokyo, Japan, 1995, pp. 1151-1157.
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Mullenbach, B. L., and S. Roy, Journal of Applied
Geophysics , 35, 79-87, 1996)
Waves used to
Monitor Rock Failure
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Roy, S. and C. Neumann, Proceedings of teh 2nd
North American Rock Mechanics Symposium: NARMS'96 Montreal, Quebec,
Canada, 19-21 June 1996, editors M. Aubertin, F. Hassani & H.
Mitri, A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1169-1175, 1996)
The Seismic Response
of Fractures and the Interrelationships Among Fracture Properties
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., International Journal of Rock Mechanics Mining
Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp785-802)
Observation of a
Distinct Compressional-Mode Interface Waves on a Single Fracture
(Roy, S. and L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, 1997,
Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 24, no. 2, pages 173-176,January 15,
from the displacement discontinuity limit to the resonant scattering
regime for fracture interface waves
(Nolte, D. D., Pyrak-Nolte, L. J., Beachy,
J. and C. Ziegler, International Journal of Rock Mechanics Mining
Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, vol 37, p219-230., 2000 )
Evolution with Compressional-Mode Interface Waves
(Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and S. Roy, Geophysical Research Letters, vol 27,
no 20, pp3397-3400, 2000).
Waves Guided between Parallel Fractures
(Xian, C. J., Pyrak-Nolte, L. J. and D. D. Nolte, International Journal
of Rock Mechanics Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts,
(accepted for publication 2001))
Seismic Focusing by a Single Fracture
(Oliger, A., Nolte, D. D. and L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, Geophysical Research
Letters, vol 30, no 5, 1203, doi:10.1029/2002GL016264, 2003)
Seismic Monitoring of Fracture Alteration by Mineral
(Gilbert, Z. and L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, Proceedings of Gulf Rocks 2004, 6th
North American Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, Texas, 2004))
anisotropy: The role of fracture-stiffness gradients
(L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, The Leading Edge, September 2007, Vol 26, No. 9,
study of field
of view and the seismic interpretation of fracture specific stiffness
(A. Acosta-Colon, L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, D. D. Nolte, Geophysical
Prospecting, 2009 57, 209-224).
Heterogeneity in the Acoustic Properties
of Porous Media
(Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, E. A. Atekwana, D. D. Werkema Jr.,
and M. E. Haugen, Geophys. Res. Lett., doi:10.1029/2009GL039569, 2009)
effect of fabric-controlled layering on compressional and shear wave
propagation in carbonate rock
Weiwei Li, Christopher Petrovitch, Laura J.Pyrak-Nolte, Internation
Journal of the JCRM, Japanese Committee for Rock Mechanics, Special
Issue on Geophysics, Volume 4, Number 2, November 2009, pp 79-85.
and electrical property changes due to microbial growth and biofilm
formation in porous media
Davis, C. A., L. J. Pyrak-Nolte, E. A. Atekwana, D. D. Werkema Jr., and
M. E. Haugen (2010), Journal of Geophyysical Research, 115,
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