- Paniccia M, Reifenberger R, Flinn P
- Dept. of Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA.
- In-situ observation of electromigration in Au using atomic force microscopy.
- American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, no.305, 1994,
- Conference Information
- Second International Workshop on Stress-Induced Phenomena in Metallization.
Austin, TX, USA. 29-31 March 1993.
- In-situ atomic force microscopy studies of electromigration in 4 mu m wide by
1 mu m thick electroplated Au wires were performed. The topographical
features that develop on a sub-micrometer length scale were studied for
current densities up to 7.5*10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ and temperatures up to 280
degrees C for time intervals ranging from a few minutes up to a few days.
Scanning probe images of the same area taken before, during and after current
stressing reveal substantial changes in surface morphology. Both hillock
growth and void formation have been observed in situ. Time lapse AFM images
can be pieced together to give a microscopic picture of mass flow due to
electromigration. These studies show that changes in surface morphology
caused by electromigration can now be quantitatively characterized with high
resolution from the scanning probe images. (20 References).