Flinn P, and
Dept. of Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA.
Scanning probe microscopy studies of electromigration in electroplated Au
Journal of Applied Physics, vol.73, no.12, 15 June 1993, pp.8189-97. USA.
Scanning probe studies of electromigration in 4- mu m-wide by 1- mu m-thick
electroplated Au wires reveal changes in surface morphology. Features that
develop on a submicrometer length scale were observed using current densities
up to 7.5*10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ and temperatures up to 280 degrees C for time
intervals ranging from a few minutes up to a few days. Scanning probe images
of the same area taken before, during, and after current stressing reveal
substantial changes in surface morphology. Before hillock growth and void
formation have been observed in situ. Changes in surface morphology caused by
electromigration can be quantitatively described from the scanning probe
images and new techniques for studying mass flow due to electromigration are
now possible. (33 References).