Paniccia M, Flinn P, and Reifenberger R.
Dept. of Phys., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA.
Scanning probe microscopy studies of electromigration in electroplated Au wires.
Journal of Applied Physics, vol.73, no.12, 15 June 1993, pp.8189-97. USA.
Scanning probe studies of electromigration in 4- mu m-wide by 1- mu m-thick electroplated Au wires reveal changes in surface morphology. Features that develop on a submicrometer length scale were observed using current densities up to 7.5*10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/ and temperatures up to 280 degrees C for time intervals ranging from a few minutes up to a few days. Scanning probe images of the same area taken before, during, and after current stressing reveal substantial changes in surface morphology. Before hillock growth and void formation have been observed in situ. Changes in surface morphology caused by electromigration can be quantitatively described from the scanning probe images and new techniques for studying mass flow due to electromigration are now possible. (33 References).